We investigated the cellular localization and tissue distribution of the glucose transporter protein in the nervous system of the monkey and rat, and in other tissues of the rat, by immunocytochemical methods with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the glucose transporter of human erythrocytes. We found intense immunostaining, indicating a high density of the glucose transporter, in all intraparenchymal blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord, in pial vessels, and in endoneurial capillaries of peripheral nerves, nerve roots, and dorsal root ganglia. Larger blood vessels at the base of the brain and in major fissures did not stain. The only intraparenchymal brain microvessels that did not immunostain were in circumventricular organs. There was no specific immunostaining of neurons or glia, except for tanycytes in the floor of the third ventricle, which immunostained intensely. Vessels of the choroid plexus did not stain, but the choroid epithelium, especially its basal membranes, stained. The only non- neural organ where immunostaining was evident in its microvessels was the testis. In addition to the endothelium of neural and testicular tissues, there was immunostaining in certain epithelial tissues, such as the perineurium of peripheral nerves and nerve roots, the epithelium of the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney, and the epidermis of the skin. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that a high density of the erythroid-type glucose transporter is inherent to many endothelial and epithelial cells that are joined by occluding junctions. However, other epithelial tissues with known occluding intercellular junctions that lack the erythroid-type of glucose transporter may have other types of glucose transporter proteins.