The segregation of callosal and association pathways in the developing visual cortex of the monkey was studied using the retrograde tracers fast blue and diamidino yellow. Quantitative analysis of the laminar distribution of labeled callosal and association neurons made it possible to reveal the shifting pattern of connections that characterizes the development of these two pathways. In the adult, callosal neurons are restricted to supragranular layers, where they are concentrated at the bottom of layer 3. Association neurons are located both in infra- and supragranular layers. Supragranular layer association neurons are concentrated in layer 2, with limited spread into layer 3 so that there is little overlap with callosal neurons. In the immature brain, callosal neurons are characterized by a tangential distribution that is more widespread than in the adult, while their laminar distribution undergoes little developmental change. Association neurons show two types of changes in their laminar distribution: (1) in the early fetus, there is a large excess of association neurons in supragranular layers, the adult distribution being achieved some time after birth; and (2) during maturation there is a selective elimination of at least 50% of the projections originating from the lower part of layers 2/3. Hence, the adult radial segregation of association and callosal pathways is achieved in part by regressive phenomena. The developmental reduction of bihemispheric projections is largely independent of changes in the organization of association neurons. Quantitative analysis of the morphology and spatial location of neurons sending axon collaterals to both hemispheres suggests that they constitute a subset of callosal neurons and that their frequency is determined by factors that regulate directly this population. These results are discussed with respect to the specification of visual cortical pathways during ontogenesis.