Biochemical analysis has shown the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis to contain 2 main classes of Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide)-like neuropeptides: the tetrapeptides FMRFamide and Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FLRFamide), and the heptapeptides Gly-Asp-Pro-Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH2 (GDP- FLRFamide) and Ser-Asp-Pro-Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH2 (SDPFFRFamide). By genomic mapping and DNA sequencing, we show here that the GDP/SDPFLRFamide coding region lies 3′ to the FMRFamide coding region. The absence of an initiating start methionine and the presence of good- concensus 3′ and 5′ splice sites suggests that the GDP/SDPFLRFamide coding region makes up 1 exon of a larger gene. In addition to 7 copies of GDPFLRFamide and 6 copies of SDPFLRFamide, the exon encoding the heptapeptides also encodes 3 novel peptides, Glu-Phe-Phe-Pro-Leu-NH2 (EFFPLamide), Ser-Asp-Pro-Tyr-Leu-Phe-Arg-NH2 (SDPYLFRamide), and Ser- Asp-Pro-Phe-Phe-Arg-Phe-NH2 (SDPFFRFamide). In contrast to the tetrapeptide FMRFamide precursor protein, the GDP/SDPFLRFamide peptides are encoded contiguously, being separated only by single basic amino acids.