Anaxonic interneurons of the granule cell type in the mammalian main olfactory bulb (MOB) are characterized by prominent membrane specializations, which include reciprocal, interdendritic chemical and electrical synapses; however, the latter are thought to be restricted to the external plexiform layer (EPL) and connect granule-mitral- and granule-tufted-cell dendrites (Landis et al., 1974). The present study focuses on interperikaryal membrane specializations between tangentially oriented aggregates of granule microneurons in the lamina granularis interna (IGL). Both infraprimate (Rattus norvegicus, Gerbillus perpallidus) and primate species (Callithrix jacchus) were studied using the following methods: (1) transmission electron microscopy (TEM), (2) freeze-fracture analysis, (3) light and TEM immunohistochemistry using affinity-purified antibodies directed against the connexin-32 or connexin-43 carboxy tail fragment of the gap- junction protein (GJP), and (4) intracellular Lucifer yellow injections in fixed tissue (LYF technique). Freeze-fracture replicas of the MOB- IGL showed that adjacent granule cell perikarya have numerous particle aggregates on the cytoplasmic membrane; in terms of their structure and arrangement, such particles are characteristic of gap junctions. The existence of junctional membranes was substantiated by application of antibodies against GJP demonstrating punctate immunoreactivity, frequently confined to the interperikaryal plasmalemmae of granule cells in the IGL and their dendritic processes in the EPL. Upon TEM analysis, GJP-like immunoreactivity was additionally found in membranous organelles, including Golgi apparati and associated vesicular components. In order to test the permeability of identified membrane specializations, the LYF technique was used, which resulted in bright fluorescence of the perikaryal and dendritic components of the transsomatically injected neuron and staining of neighboring neurons with similar morphology. These findings imply that small molecules can diffuse across the interperikaryal membrane specializations. The existence of gap junctions between granule cell perikarya suggests that there is a significant, low-resistance electrical transmission between aggregated granule cells. This coupling might permit synchronization of neural discharge among small aggregates of these neurons. Gap junctions between granule cells may also serve signaling functions associated with the protracted period of granule cell development.