We isolated cDNA clones from an Aplysia sensory-cell library encoding two isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC). Several isozyme-specific regions are conserved in the Aplysia kinases, notably the variable regions V5 in the Ca(2+)-dependent PKC (Apl I) and V1 in the Ca(2+)- independent PKC (Apl II). Neuronal proteins with the properties expected of these two isoforms can be identified with antibodies raised against peptides synthesized from the amino acid sequences deduced from the clones. Sacktor and Schwartz (1990) measured the proportion of kinase activity that can be translocated to membrane in Aplysia sensory neurons and ganglia by stimuli that produce the presynaptic facilitation underlying behavioral sensitization. Much less Apl I and Apl II are translocated, suggesting that still other isoforms of PKC exist in these cells.