The c-kit receptor and its cognate ligand, KL, are encoded at the white spotting locus (W) and the steel locus (Sl) of the mouse, respectively. Sl and W mutations affect the same cellular targets in melanogenesis, gametogenesis and hematopoiesis during embryonic development and in adult life. c-kit is expressed in cellular targets of W and Sl mutations, whereas KL is expressed in the microenvironment of these targets. c-kit and KL, however, are also expressed in tissues and cell types that are not targets of W and Sl mutations, including the brain. The cerebellum contains a small number of neural cell types whose developmental origins, pathways of migration, and synaptic contacts are known. We have investigated the patterns of expression of the c-kit and KL RNA and protein products in postnatal cerebellar development of the mouse. In the adult cerebellum, c-kit RNA and protein expression was evident in basket, stellate, and Golgi neurons. Most strikingly, the c- kit protein is expressed in the basket cell axons that form “basket” and “pinceau” structures entwining the Purkinje cell soma and the initial segment of the Purkinje cell axon. KL RNA expression was found in Purkinje cells, and the KL protein was detected in Purkinje cell bodies and dendrites. Soluble KL protein was also present in c-kit- expressing basket, stellate, and Golgi cells, presumably as a result of internalization of ligand-receptor complexes. During postnatal development, c-kit and KL RNA and protein expression in Golgi and Purkinje neurons, respectively, was evident by day 0 and persisted subsequently. c-kit expression in basket and stellate cells was detected from their time of birth, starting at day 4. These results suggest a role for the c-kit receptor system in postnatal development of the cerebellum.