The interactions of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) with the type I IGF receptor are modulated by a family of high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). One of these, IGFBP2, demonstrates a striking spatiotemporal relationship with IGF-I during cerebellar and retinal development. IGF-I mRNA is transiently expressed in large projection neurons--cerebellar Purkinje and retinal ganglion cells--while IGFBP2 mRNA is selectively expressed by contiguous neuroglia--Bergmann glia in the cerebellum and Muller cells and astrocytes of the nerve fiber layer in the retina. IGF-I and IGFBP2 gene expression is not only neuroanatomically coordinated but also temporally synchronized, peaking together during the postnatal maturation of these structures. This pattern of IGF system expression suggests that IGFBP2 is closely related to IGF-I's action in the developing nervous system.