We tested the color selectivity of neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex of two awake macaque monkeys. A color stimulus was presented at the center of the visual field while the animal performed a fixation task. The responses of single units to various colors were recorded and were plotted in a color space. The color space was based on the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) chromaticity diagram. Quantitative analysis of the color selectivity was performed using a standard set of colors that were evenly distributed in the color space. Sixty-five neurons recorded from eight guide tubes implanted in anterior part of IT cortex were tested quantitatively, and their color selectivity was statistically evaluated. Forty-six of them (71%) were classified as color selective. Color-selective cells responded to some colors but not to others, and we called the responsive region in the color space the “color field.” The location and the size of a cell's color field were largely independent of the luminance of the stimulus. About 80% of the color-selective neurons had color fields consisting of a single responsive region that were restricted in some part of the color space, and the remaining cells had more than one responsive region within the color space. Preferred hues of the color-selective neurons differed from cell to cell. The population of cells together covered nearly all of the color space. There was a tendency for more color-selective cells to be less sensitive to white and desaturated cyans. Some of the cells with color fields that consisted of more than one responsive region were more sensitive to saturation of the stimulus than to its hue. Although previous electrophysiological studies in IT cortex emphasized the pattern selectivity of the neurons, our results suggest that color is an important factor in the role that IT cortex plays in the object recognition.