We have used cultured ventral mesencephalic and cerebellar granule cells to test the toxicity of extracts of cycad seeds (genus Cycas) and cycad-derived flours traditionally prepared in Guam. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of extracts prepared from the female gametophyte tissue of C. circinalis, C. revoluta, and C. media, common wheat flour, and 13 of 17 cycad flour samples. However, extracts prepared from 4 of 17 Guamanian flour samples exhibited marked dose- dependent neurotoxicity to mesencephalic and granule cell cultures. There was no correlation between toxicity and 2-amino-3-(methylamino)- propanoic acid (BMAA) content, and the concentration of BMAA in the medium arising from these extracts was far below that required to be neurotoxic. Toxicity of extracts was not blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 or the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7- dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, indicating that toxicity was not mediated by excitatory amino acid receptors. Analysis of the four toxic processed flour samples indicated high zinc content. Zinc produced a concentration-dependent neurotoxic response in mesencephalic and granule cell cultures that paralleled the calculated concentrations of zinc in the cultures derived from the four toxic flour samples. When sliced C. circinalis gametophyte tissue was “processed” in our laboratory by soaking in a galvanized container, there was a time- dependent increase in zinc content.