We have generated a monoclonal antibody, designated mAb 3G2, which reacts with a subsarcolemmal component of the neuromuscular junction in adult rats. mAb 3G2 immunoreactivity lies beneath and between the ACh receptor-rich synaptic gutters, around the sole plate nuclei, and at/near sarcomeric Z-disks in the vicinity of the synapse. Localization of mAb 3G2 immunoreactivity to neuromuscular junctions begins postnatally and gradually increases to adult levels. The establishment of this synaptic localization is neurally regulated, as neonatal denervation prevents its occurrence. In adults, denervation results in a loss of synaptic immunoreactivity that returns upon reinnervation. The antigen is also found at the myotendinous junction; its localization here is innervation independent. mAb 3G2 recognizes a 41 kDa protein on immunoblots of extracts of newborn muscle. Based on its distribution within muscle fibers, its developmental and neural regulation, and its molecular weight, the protein recognized by mAb 3G2 can be distinguished from other known postsynaptic proteins. Its neural dependence and developmental regulation suggest that it may participate in synaptic stabilization, perhaps as the intracellular component in a chain of proteins that serve to tether the nerve terminal to the perijunctional region of the muscle fiber.