The gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia undergoes transient inhibition following noxious stimuli such as tail shock. This behavioral inhibition appears to be due in part to transient presynaptic inhibition of the siphon sensory cells, which can be mimicked by application of the peptide FMRFamide. Although FMRFamide is widespread in the Aplysia nervous system, an FMRFamide-containing inhibitory neuron has not previously been identified. We have searched for such a neuron by combining FMRFamide immunofluorescence with fluorescent dye backfilling from the abdominal ganglion, the location of the siphon sensory cells. These methods localized a neuron in the left pleural ganglion, which we have named LPL16. LPL16 is FMRFamide immunoreactive; it is excited by tail shock; and stimulation of LPL16 produces inhibition of siphon sensory cell-to-motor cell postsynaptic potentials and narrowing of action potentials in the sensory cells in tetraethylammonium solution. These results indicate that LPL16 participates in the inhibitory effects of tail shock, and support the idea that FMRFamide plays a physiological role in the inhibition.