Physiological and behavioral evidence suggests that the activity of direction selective neurons in visual cortex underlies the perception of moving visual stimuli. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effects of cortical microstimulation on perceptual judgements of motion direction. To accomplish this, rhesus monkeys were trained to discriminate the direction of motion in a near-threshold, stochastic motion display. For each experiment, we positioned a microelectrode in the middle of a cluster of neurons that shared a common preferred direction of motion. The psychophysical task was then adjusted so that the visual display was presented directly over the neurons' receptive field. The monkeys were required to discriminate between motion shown either in the direction preferred by the neurons or in the opposite direction. On half the trials of an experiment, we applied electrical microstimulation while monkeys viewed the motion display. We hypothesized that enhancing the neurons' discharge rate would introduce a directionally specific signal into the cortex and thereby influence the monkeys' choices on the discrimination task. We compared the monkeys' performance on “stimulated” and “nonstimulated” trials in 139 experiments; all trials within an experiment were presented in random order. Statistically significant effects of microstimulation were obtained in 89 experiments. In 86 of the 89 experiments with significant effects (97%), the monkeys indicated that motion was in the neurons' preferred direction more frequently on stimulated trials than on nonstimulated trials. The data demonstrate a functional link between the activity of direction selective neurons and perceptual judgements of motion direction.