Numerous modulatory fibers control the output of the pyloric and gastric mill neural networks in the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion (STG). We now describe the first results of intracellular recordings from the axon of one of these input neurons, stomatogastric nerve axon 1 (SNAX 1), close to where it enters the STG. SNAX 1 excites both the pyloric and gastric mill rhythms and is identified on the basis of its synaptic interactions with identified STG neurons. SNAX 1 receives synaptic input from several sources within the STG. As a result of these synaptic inputs, SNAX 1 fires bursts of action potentials that are time-locked to both the pyloric and gastric mill rhythms. The synaptic connections made onto the SNAX axon terminals are likely to play important roles in shaping the impulse activity patterns in these modulatory inputs. Thus, the fibers that modulate the pattern- generating networks in the STG are themselves influenced by elements in these networks, and modulation is a dynamic interaction between input fibers and STG neurons.