In previous studies of brain transplantation, the fate of the implanted glial cells has been investigated separately; that is, the interest has been focused either on the astroglia or on the oligodendroglia. However, the two populations of implanted glial cells may interact with each other, for example by secreting species-specific factors or by inducing reactions by the host. We have used two different models of brain transplantation: one that allows the identification of the implanted astrocytes, and another that allows the identification of the implanted oligodendroglia. The present model is a combination of both; it consists of the grafting of embryonic rabbit brain fragments into the brains of neonatal Shiverer mice. The myelin made by the implanted oligodendrocytes is identified by anti-myelin basic protein immunohistochemistry. The implanted astrocytes are identified by a monoclonal antibody that combines with rabbit but not with mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein. This study shows that although they use the same major routes of migration, both populations of glial cells tend to move differently. They demonstrate areas of common settlement but also areas where only one population of implanted glia is present. From the site of implantation in the dorsal striatum, the major routes of migration are the corpus callosum, the white matter fascicles in the striatum, and the internal capsule. After a delay of 6 weeks, no significant prevalence of one population of implanted glial cells over the other was observed.