Differential images of ocular dominance, acquired by comparing responses to the two eyes, reveal dark and light bands where cortical cells are dominated by the right and left eyes. These include most (but not all) histochemically stained cytochrome oxidase blobs in their centers. Differential images of orientation, acquired by comparing responses to orthogonal orientations, reveal dark and light bands that are reminiscent of the “orientation columns” reported earlier, on the basis of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) autoradiograms (Hubel et al., 1978). However, they are shorter and more fragmented because they do not include regions lacking selectivity for orientation. Even though these “bands” derive from orientation-selective areas, comparisons with differential images of other orientations reveal that regions along their centers prefer different orientations. Hence, the orientation preferences inferred from “bands” in single differential images, or single 2DG autoradiograms, are not necessarily incorrect. Interactions between ocular dominance and orientation were investigated by comparing differential images of orientation obtained with binocular and monocular stimulation, as well as by comparing differential images of ocular dominance obtained with different orientations. In both cases, the elicited interactions were minimal, indicating a remarkable and unexpected independence that subsequent experiments revealed arises, at least in part, from a lateral segregation of regions most selective for one eye and regions most selective for one orientation, in the centers and edges of ocular dominance columns. Since this can also be viewed as a lateral correlation between binocularity and orientation selectivity, it fits with the simultaneous emergence of these properties in layers receiving input from layer 4c, and suggests that each of these properties requires the other.