The ulnar and radial nerves to the hands of 12–31-d-old marmoset monkeys were transected and ligated, and the monkeys were subsequently reared for periods of 1.4–1.6 years with only median nerve innervation to the hand. Features of organization in the cortical area 3b hand map were then assessed with neurophysiological mapping procedures, and compared to features in monkeys that had undergone either a normal postnatal development with three intact hand nerves, or an abnormal development with two intact nerves due to postnatal injury of the median nerve. A systematic comparison of cortical organization in these monkeys led to three main findings. First, some features of organization show little or no change when monkeys are reared with one, two, or three hand nerves. These features include receptive field size and the overall size of the hand map. Second, other features are, in contrast, clearly altered in an injury-dependent manner. These features include cortical neuronal thresholds to light tactile stimuli, and the spatial location, size, shape, continuity, and somatotopic interfacing of representations of the parts of the hand. Finally, estimates of the peripheral innervation territories of the hand nerves, and of the corresponding distributions of cortical neurons activated by inputs from these territories, indicate that the normal hand map contains bandlike aggregates of neurons that are dominantly activated by inputs from each nerve. Postnatal nerve injuries alter the size of these nerve dominance aggregates.