The spatial memory functions of the monkey's prefrontal cortex were examined with oculomotor delayed-response (ODR) paradigms that required the animal to remember the spatial location of peripheral visual cues, while maintaining fixation on a central visual target during the presentation of each cue and during a subsequent 1.5–8 sec delay period. Four rhesus monkeys received unilateral or serial prefrontal lesions in and around the principal sulcus after they reached criterion performance on the ODR tasks. Unilateral lesions disrupted the performance of memory-guided eye movements to spatial cues in the visual field contralateral to the hemisphere in which the lesion was placed. Memory-guided eye movements to ipsilateral cues were mildly affected by unilateral lesions, and these lesions had little or no effect on performance in visually guided control tasks. With addition of a second lesion in the opposite hemisphere, the deficit was extended to include the opposite hemifield. The impairment was characterized by eye movements of inappropriate direction, and, excepting the one lesion that extended into the frontal eye field region of the arcuate sulcus, saccadic reaction times and velocities were the same before and after the lesions. The effect of the lesions was delay dependent: performance was rarely altered at the shortest (1.5 sec) delay but became progressively worse as the delay period was lengthened. The present results strengthen the evidence that the delayed-response deficits of monkeys with prefrontal lesions are caused by failure to maintain a transient memory “trace” in working memory, and indicate for the first time that working memory mechanisms are lateralized: memories for visuo- spatial coordinates in each hemifield are processed primarily in the contralateral prefrontal cortex. These findings provide evidence for the concept of mnemonic hemianopias and mnemonic scotomas, that is, memory deficits for particular hemifields or visual field locations, unaccompanied by simple sensory or motor deficits.