Simultaneous endoscopic and electrophysiological recordings were used to observe the behavior of the gastric mill complex while recording the motor output of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) in intact crabs. In the crab STG, many pattern-generating neurons are able to fire in several distinct rhythmic motor patterns. Specifically, many neurons can switch between firing in time with the rapid pyloric rhythm to firing in time with the slower gastric mill rhythm (Weimann et al., 1991). We now correlate behaviorally relevant movements of the gastric mill with some of the modifications of neuronal firing patterns previously characterized using in vitro STG preparations. The intracellular and extracellular recordings from the intact crab are largely indistinguishable from those obtained from in vitro preparations. For the first time, we describe the movements that result as neurons switch their activity patterns associated with activation of the gastric mill rhythm. Extracellular stimulation and intracellular depolarization of individual motor neurons is used to determine the relationship between frequency of firing and movement in behaving animals.