The myomodulin-related peptides comprise a family of cotransmitters that modulate neuromuscular signaling in the feeding system of Aplysia. In this study, cDNA clones encoding a myomodulin precursor polypeptide were isolated and characterized. This precursor contains seven different myomodulin-related peptides, one of which, myomodulin A, is present in 10 contiguous copies. The sequence of a myomodulin genomic clone indicates that all of these myomodulin-related peptides are encoded on a single exon. The myomodulin gene is expressed in a tissue- specific manner and myomodulin mRNA is localized to specific neurons in the Aplysia CNS. The presence of multiple related neuropeptides can greatly increase the range and precision of signaling at synapses where they act as modulator cotransmitters.