Alterations in brain activity patterns were assessed in response to swim stress by immunocytochemical detection of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) and high-resolution autoradiographic imaging of 14C-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake. The stress paradigm investigated was a classic behavioral screen for antidepressant drug activity, the forced swim test. One of the most pronounced effects produced by swim stress was an increase in 2-DG uptake and induction of Fos-LI in a restricted region of the lateral septal nucleus. Specific “limbic” cortical regions, including the medial prefrontal, ventrolateral orbital, and cingulate cortices, also exhibited both increased 2-DG uptake and expression of Fos-LI in response to swim stress. In the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of swim-stressed rats, Fos-LI was induced but no change in 2-DG uptake was apparent. Since the specific swim stress protocol used is a behavioral screen for antidepressant drugs, the effects of imipramine on stress-induced alterations in 2-DG uptake and induction of Fos-LI were examined. The stress-induced increase in 2-DG uptake in the lateral septum was blocked by treatment with imipramine, but treatment with imipramine had no effect on induction of Fos-LI in the same region. Neither 2-DG uptake nor Fos-LI expression was altered by imipramine treatment in the cortical regions influenced by swim stress. Administration of imipramine alone under basal conditions produced a robust induction of Fos-LI in the central nucleus of the amygdala and in the dorsal lateral subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. No effect of imipramine treatment on 2-DG uptake was apparent in these latter regions. The results provide insights into topographic patterns of brain activity associated with swim stress and neuroanatomically selective actions of imipramine. The different and complementary information obtained by assessment of Fos-LI and 2-DG uptake illustrates the utility of applying both functional mapping approaches to examine neuroanatomical correlates of behavioral states and drug treatment.