In several mammals only one of the two types of retinal horizontal cell, the axonless A-type, appears to express neurofilaments. Neurofilament immunostaining of rodent retinas reveals a horizontal cell plexus that has previously been interpreted as belonging to A-type cells. Our intracellular Lucifer yellow injections strongly suggest that there are no A-type horizontal cells in rat and gerbil. Counterstaining of dye-injected cellular structures with a neurofilament antibody directly shows that the axon terminal systems of the axon-bearing B-type horizontal cells contain neurofilaments. These unexpected findings explain and reinterpret the neurofilament plexus in rodent retinas. In contrast, Lucifer yellow injections in guinea pig retina reveal both A- and B-type horizontal cells, showing that horizontal cell types are not uniform among rodents. In the guinea pig retina both A-type cells and B-type axon terminal systems contain neurofilaments.