Recent studies have defined several cell surface glycoproteins expressed in the developing nervous system of insect embryos that may be involved in axon outgrowth and guidance processes. These glycoproteins include the fasciclins and a group of receptor-linked protein tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPs). In embryos, the fasciclins are localized to axonal subsets, while the R-PTPs appear to be expressed on most or all CNS axons. To identify other neuronal cell surface glycoproteins in the Drosophila embryo, we have taken a biochemical approach. This is based on the observation that antisera against horseradish peroxidase (HRP) recognize a carbohydrate epitope that is selectively expressed in the insect nervous system. A large number of neuronal glycoproteins (denoted “HRP proteins”) apparently bear the HRP carbohydrate epitope. We have used polyclonal anti-HRP antibodies to purify these proteins from Drosophila embryos, and have obtained protein sequences from seven HRP protein bands. These data define three major HRP proteins as neurotactin, fasciclin I, and an R-PTP, DPTP69D. Western blotting data suggest that fasciclin II, neuroglian, DPTP10D, and DPTP99A are also HRP proteins. We show that DPTP69D, like the previously characterized R-PTPs, is localized to CNS axons in the embryo. In third instar larvae, DPTP69D expression is restricted to subsets of neuronal processes in the brain, ventral nerve cord, and eye disk. In the optic lobes, DPTP69D is localized to the neuropils of the lamina and medulla, and to an array of parallel thick bundles that may be the transmedullary fibers of the developing lobula complex.