Human neural transplants are being developed to treat Parkinson's disease. Previous characterization of human transplants focused on neuronal development, while little is known of the interaction between the transplant and its environment, among which blood is of prime importance. We evaluated here the formation of blood vessels in human neural xenografts placed into the brain of rats immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A. Using capillary wall markers, we found that human transplants remain virtually nonvascularized for more than 1 month. Angiogenesis takes place very slowly and the density of blood vessels is still quite poor after 3 months, the fine structure of these capillaries, when they form, is apparently normal. Functional studies indicate that the vascular network formed in the transplant allows blood circulation and exhibits a working barrier to macromolecules. Glucose uptake and consumption and cytochrome oxidase activity are almost undetectable up to 3 months after grafting. These results demonstrate that vascularization is much delayed in human xenografts into the rat brain. This delay is likely to be dependent on the maturation of the transplanted tissue. A dedifferentiation of human endothelial cells cotransplanted with neural cells occurs since histochemical and immunocytochemical markers revealing endothelial cells in the human fetus are not present up to 1 month in the transplant. The origin of this phenomenon is a matter of speculation. How neural cells survive and mature in such conditions are issues of prime interest for the future of human neural grafting.