Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein phosphorylation plays a central role in neuronal signal transduction. Neurotransmitter-elicited increases in cAMP/cGMP brought about by activation of adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases are downregulated by multiple phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. In brain, the calmodulin (CaM)-dependent isozymes are the major degradative activities and represent a unique point of intersection between the cyclic nucleotide- and calcium (Ca2+)-mediated second messenger systems. Here we describe the distribution of the PDE1B1 (63 kDa) CaM-dependent PDE in mouse brain. An anti-peptide antiserum to this isoform immunoprecipitated approximately 30–40% of cytosolic PDE activity, whereas antiserum to PDE1A2 (61 kDa isoform) removed 60–70%, demonstrating that these isoforms are the major CaM- dependent PDEs in brain. Quantification of PDE1B1 immunoreactivity on immunoblots indicated that striatum contains 3–17-fold higher levels of PDE1B1 than other brain regions, with lowest immunoreactivity in cerebellum. In situ hybridization demonstrated high levels of PDE1B1 mRNA in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Moderate mRNA levels were observed in dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, medial thalamic nuclei, and brainstem, whereas negligible mRNA was detectable in the globus pallidus, islands of Calleja, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that the majority of PDE1B1 protein was localized to the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Within the caudate-putamen, PDE1B1 immunoreactivity was ubiquitous, while PDE1A2 immunostaining was restricted to a minor subset of striatal neurons. The expression of PDE1B1 protein and mRNA correlate strongly with areas of the brain that are richest in dopaminergic innervation; indeed, there are strikingly similar distributions for PDE1B1 and D1 dopamine receptor mRNAs. Since D1 receptor binding activates adenylyl cyclase, and striatal neurons lack CaM-sensitive forms of cyclase, the high amount of this PDE implies an important physiological role for Ca(2+)-regulated attenuation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways following dopaminergic stimulation.