The somatosensory cortex of primates contains patch- and bandlike aggregates of neurons that are dominantly activated by cutaneous inputs from the radial, median, and ulnar nerves to the hand. In the present study, the area 3b hand cortex of adult monkeys was mapped immediately before and after combined median and ulnar nerve transection to evaluate the consistency, extent, and location of early post-injury alterations in the deprived median and ulnar nerve cortical bands. Several alterations were observed acutely after injury. (1) The patchlike cortical aggregates of intact radial nerve inputs from the hand underwent a two- to three-fold expansion. This expansion was not related to peripheral changes in the radial nerve skin territory, but was due to rapid central decompression of radial nerve dominance patches. (2) The largest changes involved patches in lateral to central locations of the hand map. (3) The expanded patches occupied cortical zones that were activated by inputs from the digits, palm, and posterior hand prior to injury. These receptive field shifts were initiated within minutes after injury. (4) Receptive fields of neurons within expanded radial nerve patches were normal in size. (5) Besides changes involving radial nerve inputs from the hand, there was a small expansion of forelimb inputs into the preinjury hand cortex; however, the representation of face inputs did not expand into this cortex. (6) Finally, neurons across 50–69% of the hand cortex were unresponsive to tactile stimuli acutely after this injury. These findings indicate that the distribution patterns of nerve dominance aggregates in adult primates begin changing within minutes after nerve injury. Cortical changes involving specific inputs occupy similar extents and locations of cortex, and are arranged in highly consistent patterns, in different individuals. It is suggested that this consistency reflects specific patterns of central sensitization or disinhibition that are triggered by the injury.