Transections of the chicken spinal cord after the developmental onset of myelination at embryonic day (E) 13 results in little or no functional regeneration. However, intraspinal injection of serum complement proteins with complement-binding GalC or 04 antibodies between E9-E12 results in a delay of the onset of myelination until E17. A subsequent transection of the spinal cord as late as E15 (i.e., during the normal restrictive period for repair) results in neuroanatomical regeneration and functional recovery. Utilizing a similar immunological protocol, we evoked a transient alteration of myelin structure in the posthatching (P) chicken spinal cord, characterized by widespread “unravelling#x201D; of myelin sheaths and a loss of MBP immunoreactivity (myelin disruption). Myelin repair began within 7 d of cessation of the myelin disruption protocol. Long term disruption of thoracic spinal cord myelin was initiated after a P2-P10 thoracic transection and maintained for > 14 d by intra-spinal infusion of serum complement proteins plus complement-binding GalC or 04 antibodies. Fourteen to 28 d later, retrograde tract tracing experiments, including double-labeling protocols, indicated that approximately 6-19% of the brainstem-spinal projections had regenerated across the transection site to lumbar levels. Even though voluntary locomotion was not observed after recovery, focal electrical stimulation of identified brainstem locomotor regions evoked peripheral nerve activity in paralyzed preparations, as well as leg muscle activity patterns typical of stepping in unparalyzed animals. This indicated that a transient alteration of myelin structure in the injured adult avian spinal cord facilitated brainstem-spinal axonal regrowth resulting in functional synaptogenesis with target neurons.