Pyramidal neurons in layer VI of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices were examined by a combined method of intracellular recording, biocytin injection, and immunocytochemistry using in vitro slice preparations of rat brain immunofluorescence staining revealed that biocytin-injected pyramidal cells in layer VI were separated into glutaminase (PAG)-immunopositive and PAG-immunonegative cells. Although the two groups of pyramidal cells showed no statistically significant differences in passive membrane properties and spike characteristics, a clear difference was found in spike afterpotentials. Ten of 12 PAG- positive pyramidal cells showed no or a small fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP), whereas 10 of 11 PAG-negative pyramidal cells displayed a large fAHP. Depolarizing afterpotentials were observed only in PAG-positive pyramidal cells than in PAG-negative cells. In contrast, the arborization of basal dendrites was more developed in PAG-positive pyramidal cells than in PAG-negative cells. The main axons of all the pyramidal cells entered the subcortical axons of all the pyramidal cells entered the subcortical white matter. The local axon collaterals of PAG-positive pyramidal cells were widely spread in the horizontal direction, whereas those of PAG-negative cells were distributed vertically along the dendritic tree. Since PAG is considered to be a marker of glutamatergic neurons in the cerebral cortex, the present results indicate that layer VI pyramidal cells are separated into glutamatergic and nonglutamatergic neurons that have different electrical properties and input-output organizations. Thus, cortical outputs from layer VI are suggested to use at least two distinct systems.