Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were made from granule cells of the rat dentate gyrus in vitro. Tetanic stimulation in control media evoked a statistically identical long-term potentiation (LTP) of both the AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated components of the dual component EPSC (AM-PAR and NMDAR EPSCs), as shown by a similar percentage increase in both components when measured at a holding potential of -30 mV, and also by an identical time course of the pre- and post-LTP induced EPSC at -30 mV and -70 mV. Application of the selective metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist 1S,3R-ACPD induced a transient depression followed by a rapid onset LTP of both the AMPAR and the NMDAR components of the dual component EPSC. The ACPD- and tetanically induced LTP of the AMPAR EPSC was NMDAR dependent, being abolished by the NMDAR antagonist AP5. Tetanic stimulation, and application of ACPD, also induced a relatively rapid onset LTP of the pharmacologically isolated NMDAR EPSC. Such tetanically and ACPD-induced LTP of the isolated NMDAR EPSC was also dependent on NMDAR activation, being strongly inhibited by AP5. The tetanically and the ACPD-induced LTP of the NMDAR EPSC were dependent on protein kinase C (PKC) stimulation, being strongly inhibited by the PKC inhibitor PKCI (19–31). The studies suggest that coactivation of the mGluR and NMDAR are required for induction of LTP of both the AMPAR- and NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Moreover, LTP of the NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission appears to be dependent on coincident activation of the NMDAR and mGluR.