Parasagittal zones in the vestibulocerebellum contain Purkinje cells whose complex spike (CS) activity is modulated in response to rotational optokinetic stimulation (OKS) about either the vertical axis (VA) or a horizontal axis (HA) that is approximately perpendicular to the ipsilateral anterior canal. In rabbits, there are two VA zones in both the ventral nodulus and flocculus, two HA zones in the flocculus, and one HA zone in the ventral nodulus. We investigated the temporal relationship of the CS activity of Purkinje cell pairs in the same or different zones of the vestibulocerebellum in ketamine-anesthetized pigmented rabbits. A synchronous temporal relationship was defined as the tendency of the CS of each Purkinje cell to fire within, at most, 2 msec of one another. Generally, neurons in the same zone showed a tendency to exhibit CS synchrony. Of 82 pairs consisting of two Purkinje cells in the same zone (e.g., two nodulus HA cells), 33 were synchronous. In contrast, none of 26 pairs consisting of two neurons in functionally different zones (e.g., a VA cell paired with an HA cell), showed CS synchrony. Pairs consisting of neurons in spatially separated VA zones in the ventral nodulus also showed a tendency to be synchronously related (6/16), as did pairs consisting of a nodulus VA cell and a flocculus VA cell (3/14). The CS synchrony was higher during OKS in the preferred direction than during spontaneous activity. This is the first demonstration that CS synchrony in the vestibulocerebellum can be manipulated with a natural sensory stimulus.