Hair cells, the sensory receptors of the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line organs, may be damaged by a number of agents including aminoglycoside antibiotics and severe overstimulation. In the avian cochlea, lost hair cells can be replaced by regeneration. These new hair cells appear to be derived from a support cell precursor which is stimulated to divide by events associated with hair cell loss. Little is known about the timing and sequencing of events leading to new hair cell production. In this study cell cycle-associated events in the avian cochlea were analyzed at early and late time intervals following a single high dose of gentamicin. This single dose protocol has been shown to consistently result in extensive morphological damage and hair cell loss in the proximal region of the cochlea while sparing a morphologically undamaged distal cochlear region. This allowed for the differential analysis of the underlying support cell populations with respect to local hair cell loss. Three cell cycle associated markers were used to evaluate which cells entered and progressed through the cell cycle: statin, a G0 associated nuclear marker; proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a G1, S and G2 associated marker; and 5- bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), an S phase associated marker. Using these markers we found evidence for reversible changes in cell cycle status throughout the cochlea, while progression through S phase and mitosis was restricted to the region of the cochlea which sustained hair cell loss.