Activating direct olfactory (glutamatergic) inputs to supraoptic nucleus (SON) neurons increases interneuronal coupling in slices from lactating but from not virgin or male rats. Studied here were influences on coupling of another monosynaptic input to SON, the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TM) projection, activation of which selectively excites phasically firing (putative vasopressin) cells. Effects of TM stimulation and its possible downstream consequences on Lucifer yellow (LY) dye coupling among putative vasopressin cells were determined in male rat SONs. In unstimulated slices, 12 LY injections (1 cell/SON) yielded eight single and four pairs of coupled neurons. In slices in which TM was stimulated for 10 min at 10 Hz, 13 injections yielded 4 single and 28 coupled cells, with groups of 2 to 4 cells coupled to the injected neuron, a threefold increase in the number of coupled cells per injection (p < 0.02). Bathing slices in medium containing 10 microM pyrilamine (H1 antagonist) blocked this stimulation-induced coupling increase, suggesting mediation by activation of guanylate cyclase-cGMP to which H1 receptors often are linked . Bathing slices in medium containing 0.5– 1 mM 8-bromo-cGMP yielded results similar to those of TM stimulation, a 2.5-fold increase over control in the number of coupled cells per injection. Effects of TM stimulation on coupling also were blocked by bathing slices in a guanylate cyclase inhibitor (10 microM LY83583). In contrast to cGMP, 1 mM 8-bromo-cAMP significantly reduced coupling. We conclude that synaptically released histamine increases coupling via cGMP-dependent mechanisms.