Synaptobrevin, a membrane protein of synaptic vesicles that plays a key role in exocytosis, occurs in two closely related isoforms, synaptobrevin I and II. We have analyzed the axonal transport of both isoforms in sciatic nerve and spinal roots. When fast axonal transport was interrupted by crushing, the proteins accumulated continuously proximal to the crush. Accumulation also was observed distal to the crush, but to a lesser extent (47 and 63% of the proximal accumulation for synaptobrevin I and II, respectively). Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that, proximal to the crush, synaptobrevin I and II were associated with small clear vesicles reminiscent of typical synaptic vesicles. Distal to the crush, membranes positive for synaptobrevin I or II were more heterogeneous, including larger membrane profiles that may represent endosomes. In spinal cord, synaptobrevin I and II were colocalized in many terminals. However, labeling for synaptobrevin I was more intense whereas labeling for synaptobrevin II was stronger in dorsal than in ventral horn terminals. Motor endplates contained only synaptobrevin I. In the sciatic nerve, synaptobrevin I was present predominantly in large, myelinated axons, whereas synoptobrevin II was virtually absent but abundant in small- and medium-sized axons. Lumbar sympathectomy, ventral rhizotomy, and double-labeling studies confirmed that synaptobrevin I is present predominantly in motor neurons whereas synaptobrevin II is present in adrenergic and sensory neurons. We conclude that synaptobrevin I and II are transported bidirectionally by fast axonal transport and are expressed heterogeneously in different neurons in the peripheral nervous system of the adult rat, suggesting that these isoforms have special functional roles in different sets of neurons.