Over the past few years, δ-opioid receptors (DOPRs) and μ-opioid receptors (MOPRs) have been shown to interact with each other. We have previously seen that expression of MOPR is essential for morphine and inflammation to potentiate the analgesic properties of selective DOPR agonists. In vivo, it is not clear whether MOPRs and DOPRs are expressed in the same neurons. Indeed, it was recently proposed that these receptors are segregated in different populations of nociceptors, with MOPRs and DOPRs expressed by peptidergic and nonpeptidergic fibers, respectively. In the present study, the role and the effects of DOPR- and MOPR-selective agonists in two different pain models were compared. Using preprotachykinin A knock-out mice, we first confirmed that substance P partly mediates intraplantar formalin- and capsaicin-induced pain behaviors. These mice had a significant reduction in pain behavior compared with wild-type mice. We then measured the effects of intrathecal deltorphin II (DOPR agonist) and DAMGO (MOPR agonist) on pain-like behavior, neuronal activation, and substance P release following formalin and capsaicin injection. We found that both agonists were able to decrease formalin- and capsaicin-induced pain, an effect that was correlated with a reduction in the number of c-fos-positive neurons in the superficial laminae of the lumbar spinal cord. Finally, visualization of NK1 (neurokinin 1) receptor internalization revealed that DOPR and MOPR activation strongly reduced formalin- and capsaicin-induced substance P release via direct action on primary afferent fibers. Together, our results indicate that functional MOPRs and DOPRs are both expressed by peptidergic nociceptors.