5Cognitive and Affective Neurosciences Laboratory, Tilburg University, 5000 AB Tilburg, The Netherlands, 6Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, and
1Laboratory of Experimental, Neuropsychology Unit/Neurology Clinic, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Dermatology, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland, 2Faculty of Psychology and Educational Science, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland, 3Neuroscience Center, University of Geneva, CH- 1211 Geneva, Switzerland,
BOLD response in Patient T.N. when presented with photographs of direct gaze (DG) versus averted gaze (AG). a, A significant activation was found in Patient T.N.'s right amygdala when blocks of faces with DGs were contrasted with photographs of faces with AGs. Using a fixed model, voxels showing a significantly greater response (p(FWE) < 0.05) for DG when contrasted with AG were displayed on Patient T.N.'s T1 structural scan. A significantly increased response (z-score = 5.02, p(FWE) corrected = 0.004) was found in the right amygdala (MNI coordinates, 24; −12; −10; volume, 67 mm3), consistent with previous findings regarding gaze processing in normally sighted individuals (Kawashima et al., 1999) and affective blindsight in this patient (Pegna et al., 2005). b, β values representing activation in the right amygdala (MNI coordinates, 24; −12; −10) for nonfiltered (normal), high-pass filtered and low-pass filtered images, showing no differences in-between conditions. The values illustrated here were obtained from the most significant voxel in the DG versus AG contrast and were not used for statistical computation. c, Contrast estimates were significant for DG versus AG (bars indicate 90% confidence intervals).
PPI of right amygdala activation with locus ceruleus and right lingual gyrus activation. A, Seed region. B, Network of regions whose connectivity with the right amygdala was significantly greater in DG than AG (p(FWE) < 0.05, cluster extent threshold k > 10). Scatter plots below show the relative activity, trial by trial, in the amygdala and two regions: (i) locus ceruleus (bottom left), which has previously been shown to respond to subliminal threatening stimuli) (Liddell et al., 2005) and (ii) the right lingual gyrus (bottom right), for DG (red) and AG (blue).
BOLD response in a group of 10 healthy age-matched men for the contrast gaze straight > gaze averted (p < 0.001, cluster extent threshold > 10 voxels). In a random model, we demonstrated that the classic regions related to the gaze contact are activated. The right amygdala complex is also activated, but additional activation is revealed (left amygdala and hippocampus, right fusiform area). Some regions close to the region revealed during the PPI on the Patient T.N.'s right amygdala are activated.