Transplants of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) into the injured CNS have been proposed as a powerful tool for brain repair, but, to date, few studies on the physiological response of host neurons have been reported. Therefore, we explored the effects of NPC implants on the discharge characteristics and synaptology of axotomized abducens internuclear neurons, which mediate gaze conjugacy for horizontal eye movements. NPCs were isolated from the subventricular zone of neonatal cats and implanted at the site of transection in the medial longitudinal fascicle of adult cats. Abducens internuclear neurons of host animals showed a complete restoration of axotomy-induced alterations in eye position sensitivity, but eye velocity sensitivity was only partially regained. Analysis of the inhibitory and excitatory components of the discharge revealed a normal re-establishment of inhibitory inputs, but only partial re-establishment of excitatory inputs. Moreover, their inhibitory terminal coverage was similar to that in controls, indicating that there was ultimately no loss of inhibitory synaptic inputs. Somatic coverage by synaptophysin-positive contacts, however, showed intermediate values between control animals and animals that had undergone axotomy, likely due to partial loss of excitatory inputs. We also demonstrated that severed axons synaptically contacted NPCs, most of which were VEGF immunopositive, and that abducens internuclear neurons expressed the VEGF receptor Flk1. Together, our results suggest that VEGF neurotrophic support might underlie the increased inhibitory-to-excitatory balance observed in the postimplant cells. The noteworthy improvement of firing properties of injured neurons following NPC implants indicates that these cells might provide a promising therapeutic strategy after neuronal lesions.