The coexistence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), and cholecystokinin (CCK)- or somatostatin- immunoreactive material in the same neurons was studied in the hippocampus and visual cortex of the cat. One-micrometer-thick serial sections of the same neuron were reacted to reveal different antigens by the unlabeled antibody enzyme method. All CCK- and somatostatin- immunoreactive neurons in the cortex and all CCK-immunoreactive and the majority of somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus that could be examined in serial sections were also immunoreactive for GABA. In neurons that were immunoreactive for GAD it was often possible to demonstrate immunoreactivity for one of the peptides as well as for GABA. GABA-immunoreactive neurons, as revealed by an antiserum to GABA, were present in all layers of the cortex and hippocampus, and their shape, size, and distribution were similar to GAD-immunoreactive neurons. All GAD-immunoreactive neurons were also positive for GABA, but the latter staining revealed additional neurons. CCK/GABA- and somatostatin/GABA-immunoreactive neurons were present mainly in layers II and upper III and in layers V and VI in the visual cortex. CCK/GABA- immunoreactive neurons were most frequently present in the strata oriens, pyramidale, and moleculare of the hippocampus and in the polymorph cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Somatostatin/GABA- immunoreactive neurons were localized mainly in the stratum oriens and in the hilus of the fascia dentata. The two peptides could not be found in the same neuron. The majority of neurons that were GABA immunoreactive did not stain for either peptide. The presence of CCK- and somatostatin-immunoreactive material in GABAergic cortical neurons raises the possibility that neuroactive peptides affect GABAergic neurotransmission.