Table 1.

Intranigral administration of poly(I:C) increases the level of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines

Cytokine chemokineVehiclePoly(I:C)
Substantia nigra protein level 12 d after poly(I:C) (pg/mg)
    IL-1α7.993 ± 1.55812.32 ± 1.208*
    IL-1β5.564 ± 0.51156.183 ± 0.3726
    IL-24.926 ± 0.73624.772 ± 0.3633
    IL-45.910 ± 1.0345.279 ± 0.4931
    IL-655.19 ± 3.11151.55 ± 2.167
    IL-10NDND
    IFN-γ6.618 ± 0.45008.275 ± 1.364
    TNF-α23.05 ± 3.67025.25 ± 6.779
    MCP-16.501 ± 0.93939.541 ± 0.9878*
    MDC1.959 ± 0.19892.195 ± 0.1701
    Fractalkine67.93 ± 3.12769.00 ± 2.411
    MIP-1α10.12 ± 1.69811.04 ± 1.224
    MIP-2α4.860 ± 0.61665.827 ± 0.5258
    MIP-3α96.18 ± 7.500105.4 ± 7.355
    RANTES63.96 ± 3.49596.27 ± 5.275**
    TGF-β1258.1 ± 24.64246.1 ± 15.16
Striatum protein level 12 d after poly(I:C) (pg/mg)
    IL-1α13.29 ± 2.28511.98 ± 1.279
    IL-1β4.728 ± 0.43036.937 ± 0.5908**
    IL-25.124 ± 0.43485.790 ± 0.4551
    IL-46.394 ± 0.94615.232 ± 0.4566
    IL-695.59 ± 6.001114.5 ± 5.941*
    IL-10NDND
    IFN-γ9.206 ± 2.4119.822 ± 2.148
    TNF-α24.31 ± 4.69739.42 ± 3.461*
    MCP-12.174 ± 0.30893.365 ± 0.3347*
    MDC1.959 ± 0.19892.195 ± 0.1701
    Fractalkine142.8 ± 4.006136.3 ± 3.928
    MIP-1α5.000 ± 0.50165.479 ± 0.5343
    MIP-2α4.228 ± 0.45884.770 ± 0.3614
    MIP-3α81.08 ± 4.54086.95 ± 6.358
    RANTES73.06 ± 6.52476.51 ± 7.677
    TGF-β1161.3 ± 10.06202.4 ± 5.722**
  • Cytokine and chemokine levels were analyzed in the SN and striatum at 12 d after poly(I:C) injection using multiplex ELISA. Poly(I:C) injection caused increased levels of IL-1α, MCP-1, and RANTES within the SN and IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and TGF-β in the striatum. Data are shown as mean ± SEM. Vehicle, n = 9; poly(I:C), n = 10.

  • *p < 0.05,

  • **p < 0.001, unpaired t test. IFN, Interferon; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein; MDC, macrophage-derived chemokine; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; TGF, transforming growth factor.