Table 2.

MNI coordinates, maximum t value, and volume of activated areas of independent components showing significant modulations in error and/or post-error trials

ICRegionVolume (mm3)Maximum t valuexyz
IC 01 (modulation in error trials)Posterior medial frontal cortex36,99933.733−148
24.13−1732
20.5771130
16.77131147
15.9221743
Right operculum/insula679011.20538−5
9.1753−2217
Left posterior insula393011.09−36−2011
Left anterior insula9116.82−3284
Left premotor cortex443813.25−39−1441
Left posterior SFS2837.04−26−764
Right premotor cortex3486.2045−1441
Posterior MTG9686.86−54−5623
Left inferior parietal lobule2375.99−50−6532
Left hypothalamus4518.78−7−17−1
IC 02 (modulation in error trials)Cuneus69,61127.890−7118
27.35−6−6810
22.31−7−61−3
IC 03 (modulation in error trials)Right inferior occipital cortex/cerebellum24,35914.0535−74−24
13.8947−70−16
11.8326−89−17
9.7647−71−11
Left posterior SFG4397.40−26164
IC 04 (modulation in error and post-error trials)Left color-encoding area29,71023.72−25−86−17
19.05−34−80−11
18.88−11−97−13
Right color-encoding area15,57715.8118−97−3
15.6433−94−9
13.4328−859
Left parahippocampal gyrus4449.14−17−26−11
IC 05 (modulation in error and post-error trials)Right motion-encoding area (and surrounding areas)73,68227.1253−70−1
22.1347−61−12
19.4053−74−1
19.0744−70−16
13.6030−7921
Left motion-encoding area12,68417.09−36−802
14.61−42−68−2
12.12−46−652
Caudate nucleus1775.6619169
IC 06 (modulation in post-error trials)Frontopolar cortex/anterior dorsolateral cortex49,27225.37385317
20.08226423
16.23−22613
15.3956429
Rostral cingulate zone26467.69−43122
Collateral sulcus2586.4826−8−33
Left cerebellum4587.06−38−59−34
IC 07 (modulation in post-error trials)Left motor cortex31,14535.96−36−2953
23.69−43−2546
16.25−27−4459
Left posterior insula587612.98−46−1411
SMA35589.56−3−1643
Left thalamus5929.60−13−20−1
Right cerebellum556214.6623−46−29
IC 08 (modulation in post-error trials)Right motor cortex35,27144.9148−2250
28.8542−2357
24.3645−3250
17.1653−1153
Right posterior insula667413.8144−1611
SMA211712.9710−1945
Left postcentral gyrus10357.33−33−3255
Right thalamus3288.5817−19−1
Left central sulcus2016.67−48−2644
Left cerebellum523612.61−11−50−30
  • IC 01 shows an extended activation in the posterior medial frontal cortex. IC 02 shows one large activation in the cuneus, and the activation of IC 03 is mainly located in the right inferior occipital cortex, extending into the cerebellum. Activations in IC 04 correspond to color-processing visual areas, and activations in IC 05 correspond to motion-processing visual areas. IC 06 shows a post-error activation increase predominantly in frontopolar and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal areas. IC 07 and IC 08 reflect activations in the left and right motor system, respectively. All listed activations have a minimum volume size of 135 mm3 (five contiguous voxels). SFG, Superior frontal gyrus; SFS, superior frontal sulcus; MTG, middle temporal gyrus; SMA, supplementary motor area.