Table 1.

Summary of participant characteristics

PCENCOCCTRF or χ2pηp2PCE versus NCOCPCE versus CTRNCOC versus CTR
Infant
    n (females)45 (24)43 (24)64 (27)1.670.433
    Gestational age (d)272 ± 1.65280 ± 1.20278 ± 1.038.10< 0.0010.100.0010.0030.871
    Postnatal age (d)308 ± 2.92305 ± 1.53306 ± 1.410.800.4530.01
    Birth weight (pounds)6.70 ± 0.157.51 ± 0.177.59 ± 0.1211.03< 0.0010.13<0.001<0.0010.971
Mother
    Education (rank score)a4.82 ± 0.225.18 ± 0.276.20 ± 0.229.59<0.0010.140.719<0.0010.010
    Depression (scale)5.89 ± 0.725.32 ± 0.963.32 ± 0.384.590.0120.060.9210.0160.096
Drug exposure (n)
    Nicotine40370.010.938
    Alcohol14170.370.546
    Marijuana22200.170.992
    SSRIb1453.850.050
    Otherc1563.540.060
  • aRank scores for maternal education: 3, some high school; 4, graduated from high school; 5, trade school or business college; 6, some college; 7, graduated with a 4 year college degree; and 8, postgraduate work at a university.

  • bAntidepressant.

  • cMethadone, opiates, or suboxone