Table 1.

Participant demographic, FMI, respiration, cerebral blood flow, and heart rate information

ControlPlaceboMindfulnessSham
Age27.84 (6.92)27.42 (5.22)28.06 (6.75)25.95 (4.82)
SexM = 10, F = 9M = 10, F = 9M = 8, F = 9M = 10, F = 10
FMI preintervention40.94 (1.38)41.21 (1.97)37.35 (1.21)42.05 (1.46)
FMI postintervention41.73 (1.79)38.79 (1.91)43.06 (1.92)**42.05 (1.54)
RR rest heat15.73 (0.63)14.53 (0.99)17.00 (0.73)16.76 (0.73)
RR rest neutral15.89 (0.57)15.07 (0.79)16.69 (0.81)16.25 (0.67)
RR manipulation heat16.00 (0.73)14.76 (0.83)8.97 (1.05)**10.63 (1.17)**
RR manipulation neutral15.92 (0.56)14.70 (0.63)9.64 (1.03)**10.51 (0.88)**
CBF rest heat53.64 (2.48)49.84 (1.87)52.14 (2.16)52.02 (1.69)
CBF rest neutral52.74 (2.28)50.97 (1.84)52.28 (2.00)52.88 (1.55)
CBF manipulation heat51.17 (2.45)49.14 (2.00)40.29 (2.12)***47.08 (1.74)**
CBF manipulation neutral52.29 (2.41)50.39 (2.00)42.08 (2.23)***49.59 (1.68)**
HR rest heat71.29 (2.88)71.04 (2.46)63.54 (2.54)69.01 (1.52)
HR rest neutral68.64 (2.47)67.43 (2.28)66.98 (2.51)69.72 (3.27)
HR manipulation heat69.89 (3.19)68.39 (3.05)65.14 (2.17)67.86 (4.06)
HR manipulation neutral68.59 (2.70)66.46 (2.26)64.84 (2.18)66.66 (1.50)
  • There were no significant differences between groups on age and gender. Group Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) ratings (mean ± SEM) from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Mindfulness meditation significantly increased FMI ratings by 16% from preintervention to postintervention and when compared to the placebo, sham-mindfulness meditation and control groups.

  • *p < 0.05. Mindfulness meditation and sham-mindfulness meditation significantly reduced respiration rate (RR) from rest to their respective manipulations.

  • **p < 0.001. There were no significant differences in the change in respiration rate between the genuine mindfulness and sham-mindfulness meditation groups. Mindfulness meditation was associated with significant reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) when compared to the rest of the groups.

  • ***p < 0.002. Sham-mindfulness meditation also exhibited significant reductions in CBF when compared to rest. There were no between-group differences in heart rate (HR).