Table 2.

Summary of neuropsychological profile

GroupAutobiographical Interview scoresbImmediate recall memorycDelayed recall memorydRecognition memoryeSemantic memoryfWorking memorygLanguage abilitieshExecutive functionsiPerceptionjMoodk
Internal (episodic) detailsExternal (semantic) details
Hippocampal-damaged patients
Healthy control participants
p value of two-sample t test0.02a0.940.003a0.04a0.590.660.370.660.190.30.95
  • With the exception of the Autobiographical Interview scores, which are shown as standard means, scores (where available scaled scores) of individual tests have been transformed into z-scores and averaged across patients and controls within each neuropsychological domain. Therefore, a mean z-score of zero indicates that both groups had the same mean.

  • a Significant difference.

  • b Autobiographical memory performance of the patients (Levine et al., 2002) was compared to a separate control group (5 males; 1 female; mean age, 55.2 ± 18 years; range, 22–69 years; all right-handed).

  • c Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1997), logical memory 1 units and thematic scores, word list 1 total recall, and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (Osterrieth, 1944) immediate recall.

  • d WMS-III logical memory 2 units and thematic scores, and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure delayed recall.

  • e Warrington Recognition Memory Test for words and faces (Warrington, 1984), WMS-III word list 2 recognition.

  • f Warrington Graded Naming Test (McKenna and Warrington, 1980; Warrington, 2010).

  • g WMS-III digit span subtest.

  • h Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001) letter fluency and category fluency tests.

  • i D-KEFS category switch test, word-color interference test, trails test (average of visual scanning, number sequencing, letter sequencing, number–letter switching, and motor speed tests), Hayling Test (Burgess and Shallice, 1997) Sentence Completion Test.

  • j Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (Warrington and James, 1991) dot counting, cube analysis, position discrimination tests, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure copy.

  • k Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983).