Figure 3. Effects of multisession anodal tDCS treatment on individual NSPC populations. *A*, Schematic depiction of lineage-specific markers for distinguishing individual NSPC populations. The NSPC niche is comprised of type 1 (BrdU^{+}GFAP^{+}SOX2^{+}) radial glia-like stem cells (RGLs), type 2a (BrdU^{+}GFAP^{-}SOX2^{+}) and type 2b (BrdU^{+}SOX2^{+}DCX^{+}) transient amplifying progenitor cells (TAPs) and type 3 (BrdU^{+}SOX2^{-}DCX^{+}) neuroblasts. *B*, Representative immunofluorescence images of dorsal and ventral hippocampal DG sections from sham-treated and tDCS-treated mice triple stained for BrdU (blue), GFAP (red), and SOX2 (green) 2 h after BrdU injection. The white arrowhead indicates BrdU^{+}GFAP^{+}SOX^{+} cells. Scale bar: 100 μm. *C*, Representative immunofluorescence images of type 1 and type 2a NSPCs. Scale bar: 5 μm. *D*, Representative immunofluorescence images of dorsal and ventral hippocampal DG sections from sham-treated and tDCS-treated mice triple stained for BrdU (blue), SOX2 (red), and DCX (green) 2 h after BrdU injection. The white arrowhead indicates BrdU^{+}SOX^{+}DCX^{+} cells. Scale bar: 100 μm. *E*, Representative immunofluorescence images of type 2b and type 3 NSPCs. Scale bar: 5 μm. *F*, Quantification of the total number of type 1 NSPC in dorsal and ventral DG of sham-treated and tDCS-treated mice (two-tailed unpaired Student's *t* test, Dorsal DG, *t*_{(10)} = 5.57, *p* < 0.001; Ventral DG, *t*_{(10)} = 3.97, *p* = 0.002; *n* = 6 in each group). *G*, Quantification of the total number of type 2a NSPC in dorsal and ventral DG of sham-treated and tDCS-treated mice (two-tailed unpaired Student's *t* test, Dorsal DG, *t*_{(10)} = 2.97, *p* = 0.014; Ventral DG, *t*_{(10)} = 1.90, *p* = 0.087; *n* = 6 in each group). *H*, Quantification of the total number of type 2b NSPC in dorsal and ventral DG of sham-treated and tDCS-treated mice (two-tailed unpaired Student's *t* test, Dorsal DG, *t*_{(8)} = 4.19, *p* = 0.003; Ventral DG, *t*_{(8)} = 5.61, *p* < 0.001; *n* = 5 in each group). *I*, Quantification of the total number of type 3 NSPC in dorsal and ventral DG of sham-treated and tDCS-treated mice (two-tailed unpaired Student's *t* test, Dorsal DG, *t*_{(8)} = 3.38, *p* = 0.009; Ventral DG, *t*_{(8)} = 4.19, *p* = 0.003; *n* = 5 in each group). *J*, Quantification of the percentage of type 1 NSPC out of the total BrdU^{+} cells in dorsal and ventral DG of sham-treated and tDCS-treated mice (two-tailed unpaired Student's *t* test, Dorsal DG, *t*_{(10)} = 3.10, *p* = 0.011; Ventral DG, *t*_{(10)} = 1.47, *p* = 0.172; *n* = 6 in each group). *K*, Quantification of the percentage of type 2a NSPC out of the total BrdU^{+} cells in dorsal and ventral DG of sham-treated and tDCS-treated mice (two-tailed unpaired Student's *t* test, Dorsal DG, *t*_{(10)} = 2.80, *p* = 0.018; Ventral DG, *t*_{(10)} = 2.14, *p* = 0.058; *n* = 6 in each group). *L*, Quantification of the percentage of type 2b NSPC out of the total BrdU^{+} cells in dorsal and ventral DG of sham-treated and tDCS-treated mice (two-tailed unpaired Student's *t* test, Dorsal DG, *t*_{(8)} = 0.39, *p* = 0.705; Ventral DG, *t*_{(8)} = 1.35, *p* = 0.214; *n* = 5 in each group). *M*, Quantification of the percentage of type 3 NSPC out of the total BrdU^{+} cells in dorsal and ventral DG of sham-treated and tDCS-treated mice (two-tailed unpaired Student's *t* test, Dorsal DG, *t*_{(8)} = 1.58, *p* = 0.153; Ventral DG, *t*_{(8)} = 0.61, *p* = 0.557; *n* = 5 in each group). Data are presented as mean ± SEM, **p* < 0.05, ***p* < 0.01, and ****p* < 0.001 as compared with sham group. n.s.: not significant.