Table 3.

Effect of selected energy substates, NAD+catabolism inhibitors, or cofactors for pyruvate dehydrogenase against zinc neurotoxicity or glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death

% Cell death40 μm ZincGlucose deprivation
No addition67.7  ± 2.8%89.6  ± 4.7%
+3 mm Pyruvate0.3  ± 1.9%*5.2  ± 2.8%*
+3 mm Pyruvate + 3 mm CIN61.2  ± 4.1%#76.5  ± 5.9%#
+3 mm Pyruvate + 20 mmoxamate47.9  ± 2.7%#25.7  ± 2.8%#
+3 mmOxaloacetate1.6  ± 0.9%*17.4  ± 1.7%*
+6 mm Malate37.3  ± 1.8%*67.6  ± 4.3%*
+6 mm Succinate48.8  ± 2.4%*77.4  ± 2.1%*
+6 mm Lactate67.8  ± 3.5%3.4  ± 2.3%*
+6 mm β-Hydroxy-butyrate73.1  ± 4.9%12.9  ± 1.5%*
+6 mmα-Keto-butyrate61.3  ± 3.4%90.3  ± 4.3%
+2 mm FBP59.1  ± 5.1%68.6  ± 1.4%*
+2 mm DHAP62.3  ± 4.1%30.7  ± 4.8%*
+6 mm Acetyl-carnitine75.0  ± 4.0%99.0  ± 2.8%
+3 mm Niacinamide15.1  ± 1.6%*86.9  ± 1.4%
+3 mmBenzamide21.1  ± 2.9%*77.9  ± 3.9%
+3 mm 3-Aminobenzamide24.0  ± 3.7%*83.8  ± 1.7%
+6 mm Dichloroacetate21.4  ± 1.6%*79.0  ± 3.6%
+2 mmRiboflavin65.4  ± 3.5%83.3  ± 2.0%
+6 mm Thiamine67.0  ± 1.7%84.4  ± 1.7%
+0.05 mm Lipoic acid (reduced)69.4  ± 2.4%105.8  ± 1.7%
+0.25 mm Lipoic amide60.2  ± 2.4%89.8  ± 1.4%
  • Near-pure neuronal cultures were exposed to 40 μmZn2+ for 24 hr or to glucose deprivation for 24 hr alone or in the presence of the indicated compounds (titrated to optimal concentrations; data not shown), and cell death was determined by LDH efflux or propidium iodide fluorescence. n = 9–12 cultures per condition. * indicates difference from no addition and

  • indicates difference from exposure plus pyruvate at p < 0.05. CIN, cinnamic acid.