Table 2.

Staining intensities of FRUM-expressing cells in fruitless mutants

Genotype (Sex)Behavioral changes% Relative staining intensity (digitized value ± SEM)Remarks on staining patterns
WT (M)N.A.5/5 or 1100  (232 ± 52-a, 235 ± 42-b, 236 ± 22-c)100 (150 ± 122-a, 1302-c)Twenty clusters of FRUM-containing neurons, within several discrete brain regions and throughout most of the VNC; all cells show similar levels of immunostaining
WT (F)N.A.5/600No immunoreactive cells visible
fru1 (M)Court F; sings; sterile; vig. M-M7/524  (55 ± 92-a), 21  (49 ± 82-b), 100  (235 ± 122-c)92  (120 ± 112-c)Staining intensities variable among immunoreactive cells; levels of FRUM normal or nearly so in several cells, but reduced in most, including to 0 in fru-mAL and ASP1 cluster (Fig. 4); ectopic expression in many non-FRUM cells within brain and VNC (Fig. 4)
fru2 (M)Court F; sings; fertile; mild M-M5/567  (156 ± 32-a)60  (89 ± 72-a)Non-severe and apparently uniform decrement in staining intensity
fru3 (M)Weak court F; mute; sterile; mild M-M5/500No immunoreactive cells visible
fru4 (M)Court F; mute; sterile; mild M-M5/54  (9 ± 12-b)0A few immunoreactive cells visible with extremely low intensities infru-P and pSP2 clusters (Fig. 3)
frusat (M)Very weak court F; mute; sterile; mild M-M5/59  (20 ± 22-b)0Immunoreactive cells visible with low signal intensities in fru-aSP3, Lv, AL, P, SP brain cluster; and PrMs, MsMt, and Ab VNC ones (Fig.3)
  • In the genotype column, M designates male and F designates female. The behavioral column briefly summarizes the defects and anomalies reported for these five fruitless mutants by Villella et al. (1997) and Goodwin et al. (2000). N.A., Not applicable; court (or weak court) F, mutant male courts females (or does so weakly as the case may be); mute, performs wing extension when oriented toward or following female, but produces no courtship song; vig. (or mild) M-M, mutant males court each other vigorously (or at relatively low levels, but above that of wild-type inter-male courtship-like interactions). For the immunohistochemical results tabulated here, brains were dissected from animals at two life-cycle stages: 2-d-old pupae and 4 to 7-d-old adults. In the n column, numbers of pupal specimens (Pu) are indicated on the left, numbers of adult brains (Ad) on the right. For wild-type (WT) and fru1 pupae, immunostaining levels in the brain-neuronal clustersfru-aSP2, fru-P, and fru-mcAL (Figs.3, 4A,C,E) were analyzed. The fru1 mutant showed variable staining intensities among cells or within clusters, as shown in Figure 4; here, this variability is exemplified by quantifying FRUM levels in three brain-cell groups of pupae and one such (fru-mcAL) in adults. Forfru2 pupae and adults, the comparisons relative to WT are for the fru-aSP2 cluster. Forfru4 and frusat , cells infru-P clusters were analyzed (Fig. 3H,I), these being one of only two brain regions retaining FRUMimmunostaining in these mutants (in pupae only). The mean digitized signal levels (± SEM) are within parentheses in the first two data columns (no SEM for fru-mcAL in WT adult, in that only one specimen was quantified for this cluster, whereas five WT male brains were analyzed for fru-aSP2). The nominal maximal values for wild-type pupal and adult brains were set at 100%, and the mutant percentages quoted are relative to that maximum.

  • F2-a fru-aSP2.

  • F2-b fru-P.

  • F2-c fru-mcAL.