Table 1.

Effects of psychoactive cannabinoids on behavioral and neurochemical paradigms of drug addiction

EffectReference
Behavioral studies
 Discriminative stimulus in pigeons, rodents, and monkeysJarbe et al., 1976; Wiley et al., 1995
 Intracranial self-stimulationGardner et al., 1988
 Induction of conditioned place preferenceValjent and Maldonado, 2000; Navarro et al., 2001
 Self-administration in rodents and monkeysMartellota et al., 1998; Tanda et al., 2000;Fattore et al., 2001
 Behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization with psychostimulants and opiatesGorriti et al., 1999; Cadoni et al., 2001; Pontieri et al., 2001
 Induction of dependence and cannabinoid withdrawalPertwee et al., 1993; Aceto et al., 1996; Rodriguez de Fonseca et al., 1997; Hutcheson et al., 1998
 Loss of cannabinoid actions in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knock-out miceLedent et al., 1999; Zimmer et al., 1999
Neural correlates
 General role for CB1 receptors in reinforcement and relapseMartin et al., 2000; De Vries et al., 2001; Navarro et al., 2001
 Acute activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic neuronsFrench et al., 1997
 Decline of dopaminergic activity after withdrawalDiana et al., 1998
 Cooperation with endogenous opioidsTanda et al., 1997; Valverde et al., 2000; Navarro et al., 2001
 Modulation of corticotropin-releasing factor and recruitment of stress systems during withdrawalRodriguez de Fonseca et al., 1997