Table 1.

Activity rhythms in flies expressing multiple copies of TIM

Genotype No. of copies TIM n (No. of rhythmic) Average period + SEM % Rhythmic
Locomotor data from Tim 4 lines Tim 4-1 ++ 36 (26) 23.21 ± 0.21 72.2
tim+/tim+ background ++ 47 (42) 23.21 ± 0.12 89.4
++TT 49 (42) 23.35 ± 0.10 85.7
Tim 4-6 ++ 30 (14) 23.67 ± 0.21 46.7
++T 22 (15) 23.71 ± 0.09 68.2
++TT 26 (22) 23.71 ± 0.13 84.6
Tim 4-7 ++ 12 (12) 23.79 ± 0.14 100
++T 72 (68) 23.60 ± 0.06 94.4
++TT 90 (81) 23.63 ± .046 90
Tim 4-7 × Tim4-1 ++TT 12 (9) 24.11 ± 0.33* 75
++TTT 54 (45) 23.58 ± 0.10 83.3
++TTTT 76 (70) 23.57 ± 0.06 92.1
Tim 4-7 × Tim4-6 ++TT 16 (16) 23.66 ± 0.19 100
++TTT 72 (65) 23.36 ± 0.06* 90.3
++TTTT 96 (76) 23.38 ± 0.07* 79.2
Locomotor data from Tim 7 lines Tim 7-5 T 18 (14) 24.00 ± 0.15* 77.8
tim01/tim01 background TT 39 (29) 24.22 ± 0.07* 74.4
Tim 7-4 TTa 49 (38) 24.30 ± 0.06* 77.6
tim+/tim+ background Tim 7-5 ++ 10 (6) 23.33 ± 0.11 60.0
++T 16 (14) 23.39 ± 0.09 87.5
++TT 17 (16) 23.09 ± 0.15 94.1
Tim 7-4 ++ 22 (19) 23.00 ± 0.19 86.4
++TTa 43 (40) 23.20 ± 0.06 93.0
  • Increased TIM has no effect on period length. To measure locomotor activity, flies were placed in locomotor activity monitors under constant conditions at 25°C for 7 d. + refers to one copy of endogenous tim. T refers to one copy of Tim 4 or Tim 7 transgenic tim. An asterisk indicates that the average period of this genotype is significantly longer or shorter than yw control flies (nontransgenic flies from the line in a wild-type background) according to a Student's t test (p < 0.05 for all). It is clear that these mild differences are not related to transgene dose and are also not consistent from one Tim 4 transgenic line to another.

  • a Because Tim 7-4 was located on the X chromosome, one copy of this transgene was counted as two because of dosage compensation in males.