Table 2.

Voxel coordinates in Talairach space, cluster size, and associated Z scores corresponding to brain regions in which significant differences in gray matter density were detected between participants with WS and controls

Cluster size Z score Peak coordinate
Controls > WS
Bilateral parahippocampal gyrus extending across
midbrain tectum (BA 35) 2469 6.92 −12 −32 −8
Left superior cerebellar intermediate zone 636 6.88 −8 −42 −22
Left superior parietal gyrus (BA 7) 1130 6.76 −28 −66 36
Left insula/inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) 1096 6.66 −30 30 −2
Left marginal segment of the cingulate/paracentral lobule (BA 7) 239 6.44 −16 −38 52
Left middle occipital gyrus (BA 37) 199 5.92 −40 −58 12
Right superior cerebellar intermediate zone 538 5.89 10 −42 −22
Left caudate, body 202 5.84 −18 −14 26
Right medial precentral and postcentral gyri (BA 4) 60 5.84 18 −26 58
Septal nuclei 78 5.83 2 2 2
Left cuneus (BA 19) 284 5.83 −6 −88 40
Right superior parietal gyrus (BA 7) 119 5.68 26 −62 36
Left insula 22 5.63 −36 −2 −4
WS > Controls
Left nodulus 5754 >8 −4 −46 −34
Right orbital frontal gyrus (BA 11) 4859 >8 30 28 −20
Left insula (BA 41) 1839 7.51 −30 −18 16
Left orbital frontal gyrus (BA 11) 4430 7.47 −22 40 −18
Vermis (lobule IV) 1557 7.38 1 −50 0
Left retrosplenial/cingulate gyrus (BA 30) 986 7.21 −16 −42 10
Right cerebellar hemisphere 1400 7.14 40 −40 −32
Left cingulate gyrus (BA 32) 2180 7.12 −4 26 −12
Left lateral occipital gyrus (BA 18) 3453 7.12 −52 −74 0
Right lateral occipital gyrus (BA 18) 3040 6.85 46 −88 −4
Left fusiform gyrus (BA 18) 1218 6.76 −34 −70 −8
Left angular gyrus (BA 39) 763 6.68 −42 −60 34
Left medial frontal gyrus (BA 10) 372 6.58 −6 62 −4
Left cerebellar hemisphere 866 6.49 −42 −42 −30
Left superior frontal gyrus (BA 10) 273 6.46 −6 58 10
Left fusiform gyrus (BA 47) 320 6.41 −34 −46 −12
Vermis (lobule VI) 317 6.33 −4 −66 −10
Left inferior cerebellar hemisphere 912 6.24 −20 −68 −36
Left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21) 119 6.20 −64 −20 −10
Left postcentral gyrus (BA 2) 294 6.06 −52 −22 26
Right postcentral gyrus (BA 2) 189 6.02 58 −22 26
Right fusiform gyrus (BA 37) 147 6.01 36 −42 −16
Left postcentral gyrus (BA 7) 112 5.93 −4 −40 64
Left superior frontal gyrus (BA 9) 97 5.90 −8 52 38
Right cingulate gyrus (BA 24) 323 5.74 4 −8 34
Right cingulate gyrus (BA 32) 63 5.60 8 44 6
Left precuneus (BA 31) 59 5.49 −22 −68 26