Table 2.

Hemispheric dominance for controlling grip–lift movement parameters

ControlsLeft PMvLeft PMdLeft M1Right PMvRight PMdRight M1
Temporal parameters
    RT (ms)180.7 ± 37.4171.5 ± 35.6176.2 ± 34.9254.3 ± 47.2*185.7 ± 38.3183.4 ± 37.2192.1 ± 29.5
    MT (ms)89.1 ± 15.3105.7 ± 17.3*84.3 ± 18.593.6 ± 17.487.4 ± 12.781.4 ± 14.591.2 ± 15.3
    CT (ms)5.6 ± 1.017.7 ± 12.1*4.7 ± 1.36.1 ± 1.95.2 ± 1.46.1 ± 1.15.3 ± 1.5
    APB–1DI (ms)11.7 ± 4.326.3 ± 7.1*14.8 ± 5.210.7 ± 4.313.7 ± 5.115.2 ± 6.813.2 ± 5.8
    BrR (ms)218.8 ± 16.4221.5 ± 18.3234.3 ± 15.8*293.7 ± 25.4*215.3 ± 17.9218.9 ± 20.3201.6 ± 14.8*
    1DI–BrR (ms)29.8 ± 9.422.7 ± 7.444.1 ± 10.3*28.8 ± 12.421.3 ± 10.220.5 ± 10.118.7 ± 10.4*
    Preloading phase (ms)35.4 ± 15.441.7 ± 17.369.1 ± 18.1*43.6 ± 19.243.1 ± 8.734.6 ± 21.521.6 ± 9.3*
    Loading phase (ms)183.2 ± 27.4185.6 ± 29.4181.8 ± 28.4223.7 ± 31.4*187.3 ± 27.3182.5 ± 31.4157.4 ± 28.3*
Dynamic parameters
    GF peak (N)8.5 ± 1.48.9 ± 1.58.4 ± 1.57.2 ± 3.2*8.8 ± 1.68.3 ± 1.48.5 ± 1.8
    dGF/dt peak (N/s)46.7 ± 7.145.7 ± 8.447.1 ± 7.331.9 ± 10.3*45.5 ± 9.246.3 ± 6.465.8 ± 9.5*
    dLF/dt peak (N/s)42.3 ± 6.141.9 ± 7.142.8 ± 6.528.7 ± 9.4*40.3 ± 6.741.5 ± 6.958.3 ± 7.1*
    Cross-correlation coefficient0.86 ± 0.100.81 ± 0.100.85 ± 0.110.53 ± 0.21*0.78 ± 0.120.83 ± 0.100.55 ± 0.15*
    Time shift (ms)25.5 ± 8.728.2 ± 9.340.3 ± 8.9*55.4 ± 15.2*30.2 ± 9.523.2 ± 10.157.2 ± 19.1*
Finger positioning
    Ind-Th H dist (mm)5.3 ± 1.911.5 ± 2.2*6.9 ± 1.65.5 ± 1.49.2 ± 2.0*5.8 ± 1.75.7 ± 2.1
    Index CP area (mm2)30.1 ± 7.685.9 ± 17.1*29.4 ± 8.133.2 ± 9.164.5 ± 9.6*33.5 ± 10.434.2 ± 10.2
    Thumb CP area (mm2)24.9 ± 5.373.8 ± 13.7*27.2 ± 6.327.2 ± 8.457.2 ± 12.5*30.4 ± 7.832.6 ± 7.1
  • Mean ± SD values (n = 6) of movement parameters gathered in the control condition (sham) and after the inactivation of the left and right PMv, PMd, and M1. Ind-Th H dist, Horizontal distance between the index and thumb on the manipulandum.

  • *p < 0.05.