Table 1.

Significant changes (increase of cerebral gray matter) during the time of skilled performance (scan 2) compared with time point one

RegionBrodmann's areasTalairach coordinates (x, y, z)Z score of peak activation
Main effects analysis (n = 25)
    R hMT/V51825, −92, −14.03*
    L Hippocampus−18, −11, −214.79
    Cingulate cortex24−3, 40, 64.07
    L Superior frontal gyrus10−17, 61, −33.54
    R Gyrus precentralis412, −21, 744.72
Interaction analysis (n = 50)
    hMT/V5 R1824, −91, 33.21
    L Hippocampus−18, −11, −214.45
    L Nucleus accumbens−19, 3, −144.79
    R Nucleus accumbens19, 5, −134.01
  • This pattern reversed when study participants were examined at time point 3 (after the weeks without practicing). The changes are tabulated in terms of the brain region and the corresponding Brodmann's area. The x, y, and z coordinates are according to the Montreal Neurological Institute and International Consortium for Brain Mapping (http://www.loni.ucla.edu/ICBM/). Each location is the peak within a cluster (defined as the voxel with the highest Z-score). L, Left; r, right.

  • *Corrected for multiple comparisons (SVC).