Table 1.

Comparisons of severity of phenotypic features in 2N versus Ts1Rhr mice

Phenotype2NTs1Rhrp value
Behavior
    Locomotor activity test
        Total distance during 10 min (m)18.4 ± 1.220.9 ± 2.20.38
        Average velocity (cm/min)28.5 ± 0.728.3 ± 0.60.81
        Average vertical time during 10 min (s)125.1 ± 6.1109.6 ± 4.1−0.03
    Open field activity testNormalThigmotaxic−0.03
    Novel object recognition test
        Exploration time (1 h delay test) (s)44.0 ± 4.035.6 ± 2.5−0.03
        Discrimination ratio (1 h delay test)0.80 ± 0.030.79 ± 0.030.38
        Exploration time (24 h delay test) (s)28.5 ± 2.623.3 ± 1.80.09
        Discrimination ratio (24 h delay test)0.89 ± 0.010.83 ± 0.02−0.04
    Continuous alternation task in T-maze (%)57.4 ± 1.847.2 ± 3.1−0.02
Neurophysiology
    LTP in control conditions (%)113.2 ± 3.094.4 ± 4.6−0.01
    LTP in picrotoxin (%)142.3 ± 12.1152.4 ± 16.10.62
Dendritic morphology
    Fascia dentata:
        Average spine density, total (per 100 μm)201.0 ± 1.1172.2 ± 1.5−<0.001
            Inner ML198.1 ± 5.1168.2 ± 6.9−0.001
            Middle ML204.0 ± 4.7189.6 ± 5.3−0.04
            Outer ML200.5 ± 5.6162.3 ± 5.4−<0.001
        Average width of dendrite, total (μm)0.89 ± 0.010.87 ± 0.020.95
            Inner ML1.08 ± 0.031.11 ± 0.040.46
            Middle ML0.87 ± 0.020.86 ± 0.020.76
            Outer ML0.70 ± 0.020.67 ± 0.020.20
        Area of spine head, μm20.161 ± 0.0030.173 ± 0.004+0.01
        Length of spine neck, μm0.34 ± 0.010.36 ± 0.010.25
    Layers II–III pyramidal neurons in motor cortex:
        Average spine density, layers II–III basal (per 100 μm)111.1 ± 4.9122.9 ± 4.70.08
            Layers II–III apical105.0 ± 4.7106.7 ± 3.50.81
            Layers II–III apical oblique94.9 ± 3.499.0 ± 3.40.52
        Average width of dendrite, layers II–III basal, μm0.73 ± 0.020.76 ± 0.020.19
            Layers II–III apical1.24 ± 0.041.18 ± 0.040.98
            Layers II–III apical oblique0.80 ± 0.020.71 ± 0.02−0.001
        Area of spine head (μm2)0.23 ± 0.010.27 ± 0.01+0.001
        Length of spine neck, μm0.75 ± 0.030.73 ± 0.030.77
Body weight (at 3.5 months old) (g)29.0 ± 0.430.9 ± 0.4+0.002
Brain anatomy
    Brain weight (at 7.5 months old) (g)0.45 ± 0.010.48 ± 0.01+0.01
    Volume of entire hippocampus (×109 μm3)7.10 ± 0.448.14 ± 0.520.56
        Anterior part (×109 μm3)1.38 ± 0.071.43 ± 0.130.79
        Middle part (×109 μm3)3.27 ± 0.162.96 ± 0.230.37
        Posterior part (×109 μm3)2.45 ± 0.993.76 ± 0.29+0.01
    Area of granule cell layer (×103 μm2)115 ± 798 ± 5−0.04
    Area of entire FD molecular layer (×103 μm2)197 ± 16201 ± 80.61
        Anterior part of ML (×103 μm2)161 ± 7180 ± 5+0.03
        Middle part of ML (×103 μm2)192 ± 10184 ± 60.84
        Posterior part of ML (×103 μm2)285 ± 21277 ± 140.93
    Area of entire hilus (×103 μm2)167 ± 24188 ± 160.48
        Anterior part (×103 μm2)181 ± 21270 ± 30+0.04
        Middle part (×103 μm2)138 ± 20123 ± 40.39
        Posterior part (×103 μm2)225 ± 15167 ± 170.25
    Distance CC–GCL superior blade (μm)2257 ± 1542217 ± 930.82
    Distance CC–GCL crest (μm)1112 ± 841177 ± 710.58
    Distance CC–GCL inferior blade (μm)2067 ± 1382042 ± 790.86
    Thickness of motor cortex (μm)681 ± 9750 ± 14+0.005
  • All values are mean ± SEM. + or − indicates increased or decreased values, respectively, of genotypic features relative to 2N. Bold represents significant difference of studied parameters. All phenotypes can be combined in the following domains: (1) locomotor activity, (2) open field activity, (3) novel object recognition, (4) T-maze alternation, (5) LTP, (6) dendritic morphology in fascia dentata, (7) dendritic morphology in motor cortex, (8) hippocampal anatomy, (9) motor cortex thickness, (10) brain weight, and (11) body weight. Note that all domains tested showed changes between 2N and Ts1Rhr.